The arrangement of the chapel in the first tier of the bell tower in 1633 led to a partial reconstruction of the church.
The slot is connected to the room of the first tier by a rectangular vestibule made in the thickness of the wall.
By the nature of the white stone border there is a large window opening in the apse – with an arrow partition and a complex profile; this type of borders is characteristic of the Armenian architecture of the XI century (Sanain) and at the same time, by the nature of the curve and dimensions (1.24 x 2.95 m), approaches the portal of the main entrance to the Russian-Polish magistrate on the Market (1.45 x 2, 7 m). Later converted into a window, this opening in the eastern facade, bordered by a white stone Gothic portal, was originally the entrance to the bell tower.
On the second tier of the bell tower there was a middle-walled passage, which was reached through a low (1.5 m) slot with a portal of a simple shape on the southern facade, raised to a height of 1.5 m. This method of communication with the upper tiers is known in the Armenian bell towers of Akhpat and Sanain. The ceiling between the first and second tiers of the bell tower, as well as the higher tiers, was originally wooden, on beams. From them in the second tier there are still nests, in the top – wall edgings. The vault between the first and second tiers appeared in the seventeenth century after the first tier of the bell tower was converted into a chapel.
According to legend, the chapel was built in 1633 from the foundation of a rich man who lived on the same street and preferred to listen to church services from his home. M. Brzskian reports that at the entrance to the bell tower there was a foundation slab with the image of the crucified Christ and two male figures in oriental attire on both sides, kneeling, immersed in prayer. The inscription below the image testified that the chapel was founded in 1633 by the Armenian Pirzade, atonement for his sins, as a vow in the name of the souls of his wives Marukhna and Turvanda. The plate, which, according to M. Brzskyants, was broken during the Turkish occupation, is still n preserved.
The height of the second and fifth tiers of the bell tower was 5.5 m, 3.6 m, and 5.6 m, respectively. In the tiers, openings were made one on the axis of each facade. In the second tier the room was illuminated by arrow windows. The third and fifth tiers were combat, with artillery shells, the cheeks of which extended outward. The tier of bells was fourth; here in each wall there was one large opening with semicircular arched partitions bordered by rusted archivolts.
The special architecture at the initial stage of construction was marked by the fifth, upper tier of the bell tower of the Church of St. Nigol – with four cantilevered round towers-bartians, topped with exquisitely shaped tops. The towers were two-thirds of their height within the brick volume of the bell tower, while the upper part of them rose above the crown cornice. The cantilever decision of the bartians is explained by the fact that in their floor were cut shooters for foot combat – machine guns. Due to this, the defenders, without changing their position, were able to fire on the neighborhood through the arrows in the walls and the foot of the bell tower through the machine guns. On top of the walls of the bell tower, between the bartians, probably also made a number of machicales. This corresponded to the purpose of the upper tier, which performed only a defensive function.
The arrangement of the chapel in the first tier of the bell tower in 1633 led to a partial reconstruction of the church. The Gothic portal on the eastern façade was converted into a window, the lower part of which was walled up, and the wide chamber of the doorway was replaced by an apse with a conch. The entrance to the chapel was made on the southern facade, next to the brick stairs leading to the second floor. A 2.3 m wide vestibule was arranged in the thickness of the wall. A cross vault was made above the first tier. Only the nests of wooden beams at the level of the floor of the second tier remain from the original wooden floor.
The chapel of St. Stepanos was painted. Fragments of them were found by restorers in 1975 on the walls, vaults, cons and in the shutters of the east window. Among the drawings are an ornamental frieze in the form of a meandering strip and a black ribbon bordered by red stripes, ornamental motifs with plant elements, images of angels and saints, biblical scenes, and genre secular scenes against the backdrop of a medieval city. Characters of genre scenes – men, women, clergy, warriors – have typical Armenian facial features. Men – with mustaches and beards, in oriental hats and suits. Especially interesting architectural motifs, which depict a fortified city with walls, towers, bell towers and houses, fragments of interiors and facades.
At the end of the 17th century, during the Turkish occupation, the Armenian Church of St. Nigol was destroyed. The upper tier of the bell tower with bartian towers was also damaged.
In the 18th century, the church, which was already owned by the Uniate community, was rebuilt. At the same time the bell tower was repaired. These works were carried out by the famous architect Jan de Witte, the builder of the Lviv Dominican Church of the Corpus Christi. Following the old defensive tradition, Jan de Witte best online lab report writing services reviews restored the upper tier of the bell tower with corner turrets, but no longer in the type of cover bartians, as it was in the Middle Ages, but as defensive observation points, architecturally reminiscent of the former appearance of the building. The upper tier was built of hewn white stone blocks.
The difference between the monolithic masonry of hewn white stone blocks in the upper tier and the weathered surface of the walls of the lower tiers of ordinary untreated limestone is noticeable to the naked eye. The 0.27-meter-thick turrets, placed on the horns of the Gzyms, which had a large carry-over and prevented the shelling of nearby approaches, no longer played any defensive role. Most historians, however, still mistakenly consider them to be the original elements of a defensive belfry.
In 1974-1982 the bell tower was restored (architect – A. Tyupych, artist A. Marmpolsky). During the restoration, the architectural solution of the 18th century was taken as a basis.
List of references
1. Vynokur I., Khotyun G. Kamyanets-Podilsky State Historical and Architectural Reserve. – Lviv, 1986. – P.76.
2. Monuments of urban planning and architecture of the Ukrainian SSR: Illustrated directory. – K., 1986. – Vol.4. – P.137.
3. Plamenytska E., Vynokur I., Khotyun G., Medvedovsky I. Kamyanets-Podilsky: Historical and architectural essay. – K., 1968. – P.85.
4. Tyupich A., Khotyun G. Armenian buildings of Kamenets-Podolsky // Second International Symposium on Armenian Art. – Yerevan, 1978. – T.II. – P.428 – 429.
5. Khalpakhchyan O.Kh. Buildings of the Armenian colony in Kamenets-Podolsky // Architectural heritage. – Moscow, 1980. – №28. – P.145.
6. Chszaszczewski J. Ormian churches in Podol // Sztuka kresow wschodnich. – Krakow, 1988. – Volume III. – P.71.
7. Vasary S. Armeno-Kipchak parts from the Kamenets Chronicle // Akta Orientalia Hungarica .. – 1969. – XII. – P.142.
Kachanivska Manor Park as a landmark of landscape art
Kachanivska Estate Park is an outstanding monument of garden and park art of the end of XVIII – the beginning of XIX centuries with the largest park of the Romantic era in Ukraine.
The estate in Kachanivka, now a village in the Ichnia district of the Chernihiv region, was formed in the middle of the 18th and the end of the 19th centuries. It is located on the southwestern outskirts of the village on two levels. On the upper plateau there is the palace itself with two outbuildings and a tower, which form a kurdoner – the front yard, the arbor of M. Glinka, two buildings of services and St. George’s Church.
In the regularly planned park there are graves of G. Chestakhivsky, O. Agin, M. Haram, a monument to T. Shevchenko, as well as separate residential and farm buildings. The lower level is a landscape park with 12 ponds, a pavilion, a park sculpture, bridges, "ruins" and an amphitheater. The area of about 560 hectares is currently bounded by a highway and cascades of ponds.
The ensemble developed over 150 years, was repeatedly rebuilt, its spatial structure changed. The estate was founded in the first half of the XVIII century. Its first owner was F. Bulgarin. The court singer F. Kochenovsky bought the estate from him, from whom it was inherited by a relative, Major M. Kochenovsky. The name of the estate comes from their surnames. In 1771 – 1808 Kachanivka was owned by Field Marshal Count P. Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky and his son O. Rumyantsev, in 1808 – 1824 – G. Pochek, 1824 – 1853 – G. Tarnovsky, 1853 – 1866 – V. Tarnowski, and in 1866 – 1897 the owner of the estate was his son – the famous collector Vasyl Tarnowski Jr. After him, for 20 years, until 1919, the estate was successively owned by sugar growers Kharitonenko, princes Urusova, M. Oliv.
The names of prominent representatives of Ukrainian and Russian culture are connected with the Kachaniv estate. Taras Shevchenko, Mykola Gogol, Marko Vovchok, artists Mykola Ge, Ilya Repin, Mykhailo Vrubel, Vasyl Sternberg, Volodymyr Orlovsky, Oleksandr Kunavin, Oleksandr Agin, Ivan Pryanyshnikov, brothers Konstantin and Volodymyrly lived Makovsky worked Horkosers different here … , Semyon Gulak-Artemovsky, scientists Mykhailo Maksymovych, Vasyl Horlenko, Dmytro Yavornytsky and others.
During the Bolshevik rule, the estate housed various institutions – an orphanage, sanatoriums, etc. As a result of barbaric management, part of the ensemble’s buildings has not been preserved, interior decor and furniture have been largely lost, and the landscape park has been distorted. But even what has been preserved is recognized as the best example of palace manor architecture of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Restoration work began here in 1974. And in 1981 the ensemble was declared a State Historical and Cultural Reserve. It is subordinated to the Ministry of Culture and Arts of Ukraine. The ensemble has survived in the stylistic forms of classicism and historicism (neoclassicism). The buildings are made of brick, partly wooden with brick facing. The layout of the estate is regular (upper plateau). Its composition has a clear axial structure with a west-east orientation.
The palace, which is the main element of the ensemble and to which other elements are subordinated, was built in 1771 by the Ukrainian builder Maxim Moscepanov (Mostsipanov) according to the project of the Moscow architect Karl Blanc. Specialists who studied the palace, working on the project of its restoration, have five construction stages: